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Exodus Chapter 22


In sections like this we are looking for how these laws are based on God’s character and His CARE for His people, particularly the most vulnerable among them.


The 3 R’s of Crime & Punishment in the Old Testament:


Retaliation                                        Retribution                                       Restitution


Today’s Chapter is the Key Chapter in the Bible on RESTITUTION


The word Shalam (Strong’s 7999) occurs 107 times in the OT, 12 in this chapter! It is related to Shalowm (Strong’s 7965). Shalam occurs in 12 of the first 15 verses.


Laws of Restitution                                                                                  V. 1-15


Crime:                                                                                               Punishment:










Notice that restitution is greater for stealing than for NEGLIGENCE, as in the last chapter.


What if you couldn’t pay for damages you had caused?


Presumably SERVITUDE for a season – equivalent of work to pay back now


If you suspected someone but were found wrong- you paid double because you have hurt the REPUTATION of another. Modern equivalent- having to pay court costs for other party!


Because both parties were supposed to fear God, they knew that He would deal with them if they dealt UNJUSTLY!


Of course Jesus greatly SUMMARIZES when He says the entire law could be summed up in the words, “Do unto others as you’d have done unto you!”


Miscellaneous Civil Laws                                                                                    V. 16-31


Penalty for stealing a girl’s virginity:


Penalties for things that should not happen in Israel:


Protection of the least of these:


To clarify His point, God says he will PERSONALLY take care of retaliation 


Fairness and honesty:


Don’t use a pledge as an excuse to deny people the basics they need- that’s what PAGANS do


Why does he connect the things in verse 28a with reviling God?


Genesis 9:6 


James 3:8-10


Because people are made in God’s IMAGE to revile them and treat them as second class citizens is to revile God!


The Importance of honoring AUTHORITY


“You’ll never be over what God wants you over until you’re under what God wants you under”                                               -Adrian Rogers


Give your best to God.


Exodus 22:29 is not a call for child sacrifice but a call for consecration before God, as called for in Exodus 13:2, “Consecrate to Me all the firstborn.” Exodus 34:19-20 calls for the sacrifice of an animal to “redeem the life of the firstborn son.” The oldest son will bear certain RESPONSIBILITIES under God’s authority, which calls for consecration.